Ruby 1.9.2-p318 faster

Due to an applied patch that optimized/fixed how ruby required libraries, the performance of my test suite was significant (~2 times.)

Below are the benchmarks from my test suite before and after the upgrade. The only issue was that RVM did not have support for the latest patch version so one pull request later and we are good to go.

    Ruby 1.9.2-p290

        real    6m14.266s
        user    2m17.930s
        sys 0m9.587s

    UPGRADE TO ruby p318

        real    2m22.649s
        user    1m15.867s
        sys 0m8.126s

My continuous integration server will be really happy now as well!


Rails Session ArgumentError: key too long [SOLVED]


I am migrating an app from one version of Ruby to another. In my rollout I decided to first launch one server using the new version of Ruby 1.9.2 and adjust the load balancer to only move over about 10% of the traffic to it. I noticed in newrelic that within 10 minutes there were tons of exceptions like:

ArgumentError: key too long "rt:BAh7Czozg3OWY4MWRkMjAyYjlkNzljNmUwNWYwZDRhMDQ6F
Stack trace (hide Rails)
/path/shared/bundle/ruby/1.8/gems/memcache-client-1.8.5/lib/memcache.rb:703:in `get_server_for_key'
/path/shared/bundle/ruby/1.8/gems/memcache-client-1.8.5/lib/memcache.rb:920:in `request_setup'
/path/shared/bundle/ruby/1.8/gems/memcache-client-1.8.5/lib/memcache.rb:885:in `with_server'
/path/shared/bundle/ruby/1.8/gems/memcache-client-1.8.5/lib/memcache.rb:246:in `get_MemCache_read'
/path/shared/bundle/ruby/1.8/gems/actionpack-2.3.8/lib/action_controller/session/mem_cache_store.rb:31:in `get_session'

The interesting thing was that none of these errors were coming from the new server, but something on the new ruby server was breaking the other, so here is what I found was the problem.


The new server was configured to use the cookie store and the others were using memcached store. It sounds stupid and it is, but it wasn’t so easy to figure out at first. When I googled for the error I noticed that none of the issues had solutions, so thats why I decided to write this post.

In short, the session[:session_id] with the default cookie store passes both the session data and the session key into the cookie, and the memcached/db store’s only put the session_id from the cookie as session[:session_id].

May your session keys be truly keys!

Ruby 1.9.2, Encoding UTF-8 and Rails: invalid byte sequence in US-ASCII

Ruby 1.9.2, Encoding UTF-8 and Rails: invalid byte sequence in US-ASCII

written by Paul on January 20th, 2011 @ 12:05 AM

While working on a migration from ruby 1.8.7 to 1.9.2, I ran into some issues with encoding. Fortunately, we are using PostgreSQL and the database drivers are pretty good for UTF-8 support and encoding tagging, but there were still some snags in a few areas of my code.

My company, has pretty custom urls structures. Because of the concern of having multiple urls go to the same content and appearing to Google to be doing something bad, we have come code that ensures that the url that was requested is the same url that we would have generated and if it wasn’t we would redirect.

In this code, we generate a url and compare it to the value ofrequest.request_uri to see if we should redirect or not. On issue that came up is that Nginx and Passenger encode the unicode characters and Rack turns it into Binary, which is ASCII-8bit, but its really just means that no encoding is assigned.

In the browser a url might look like this:


But when my code genrated the url it looked like this:


The above could easily be fixed with this:


Then I had issued where I had a URL (request.request_uri) like:


It was ASCII-8bit which is really a way of saying that its binary or in other words that no encoding is set. The solution was pretty easy, I just assigned it the encoding that I knew it should be:

  # => "/h-336461-amboise_hotel-château_de_noizay"

Then I had an issue where templates/views were breaking due to some data in a haml view thinking that the test was ASCII: The test was supposed to look like this “Details for Château de Noizay,” but haml raised an exception “ActionView::TemplateError (invalid byte sequence in US-ASCII).”

After digging around a bit I was able to configure Apache (on my mac) by adding the following to the /etc/profile.

export LANG=en_US.UTF-8

Then after restarting Apache on my mac, I refreshed, and when I did, the text that was supposed to look like “Details for Château de Noizay” ended up looking like “Details for Ch 도teau de Noizay”.

I was about to write my own hybrid asian/latin based languages but instead added the following to my environment.rb and everything seemed to come together like I had hoped it would.

Encoding.default_internal = 'UTF-8'

Now that my app was able to run without encoding errors, I said “yeah!”

Hope this scribble scrabble helps some poorly encoded soul.

Thanks to a few articles I was not only reminded of some of the basics of encoding but learned to embrace the new changes within Ruby 1.9.2. We’ll see how tomorrow goes. 😉


Changing File Encoding Using Ruby 1.9.2

Changing File Encoding Using Ruby 1.9.2

written by Paul on January 3rd, 2011 @ 06:22 AM

Currently, I am in the process of upgrading an application from Ruby 1.8.7 to Ruby 1.9.2. One of the big differences between 1.8 and 1.9 is the multi-byte character support.

The Problem

We have thousands of static html files that were generated in Ruby 1.8 and when Ruby 1.9 reads them it fails. As usual, before I start to dig in to solving the problem I do a quick search and see what other people have been doing to solve the problem. My search yielded a bunch of multi-lined scripts and techniques… most of which were from the Ruby 1.8 days.

The Solution

In short I wrote a simple 4 lined script in irb and it completed my task quickly. One thing that I am really happy about it how Ruby 1.9.2 strings have a method called escape that provides great utility when performing these kinds of tasks.

So here is the code:

`find . -name '*.html'`.split("\n").each do |filename|
  puts filename
  handle =,"w+")
end; nil

If you are interested in the options with the encode method, go check them out.


The Importance of an Agile Process

The Importance of an Agile Process

written by Paul on December 28th, 2010 @ 12:02 PM

Over ten years ago at the start of my career I was vehemently opposed to “process” and mostly thought that a process was for those who could not be independent and relied on slowing down to mediacracy in order to ensure that the whole organization was synchronized.

Now that I am looking back I realize that I was right and wrong. I have learned that processes are the only way to breakout of mediacracy. I would like to share what has changed my outlook and discuss the pitfalls of applying processes the wrong way.

A process must…

1) be changeable by everyone who operates within it:

Everyone within the process must use their observations and power of perspective to “own” of the portions of the process that they interact with. Nothing is more destructive to a team’s productivity or an employees morale than seeing opportunities to improve, proposing them, and then being told by “the powers that be,” that their ideas are good, but [put traditional management smoothing line here.] This is what caused what Frederick Taylor referred to as “Soldiering” in his paper, The Principles of Scientific Management—people, when “put in their place” will do the minimal in order to get paid but avoid “punishment.”

2) be seen as a way to instill discipline within a team:

Lets face it, we are all different and some of us have more discipline (or other kinds of discipline) than others and even the most well-meaning and disciplined person can quickly become derailed when under the pressure from investors or the excitement of a new idea. Because of this normal tendency that each of us have, a process can ensure that rational thought and perspective is continuously applied.

In XP there is a notion of pair-programming—this tool does much to keep two minds around the same problem, where one might slip off into an interesting but unnecessary deviation within a project, the other can pull the reins and so the pair become more productive because they are guiding each other as a team.

Looking back on my life the times when I was int he best physical shape and frequented the gym was when I had a friend to train or work out with. The dynamics of a process or team culture can take a team very far.

3) allow and even encourage experimentation and testing:

When a potential opportunity for making the process better arises, proposals for improvement must be respected and the ideas should be tested. Like all empirical process, the results should speak for themselves. In fact there is a powerful side effect of testing that is not to be ignored. The Hawthorne Effect illustrates how by simply knowing that you are being measured you perform at a greater level. The idea or process change itself may not directly increase productivity, but just like how a pedometer can get one to move more to lose weight, knowing that you are being tested increases ones focus.

4) not driven top-down or bottom-up, but both:

Right below being told you can’t do something (referenced in #1 above) on the list of productivity killers is being told what to do. In a perfect world your whole company would all have the same epiphany on exactly how to conduct the their agile process, but in the real world, we need to share our ideas, persuade, and be persuaded. Kent Beck has said “The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams”, and when people are empowered people care-less about position warfare and individuals are more likely to take feedback and ideas from the “top” and vice-versa. Processes that evolve on principles of efficiency and are aligned with organizational goals are always going to be more successful than those that are imposed.

5) increase productivity:

If any aspect of a process does not contribute to the productivity and health of an organization or team then they should be changed. One of the beauties of Scrum is the focus from the team and organization on “Inspecting and Adapting.” Process changes should always result in greater productivity!


When I was younger and more allergic to the word “process” I was right to feel that way because many of my observations of what “process” was presented as were indeed dysfunctional applications of agile (or not) “processes.”

Some companies like 37Signals denying the existence of a “process” because of their “process” allergy. They often talk about not having a process, but what they don’t convey properly to their audience (and I think its unfortunate) is that they DO have a process, though not written down, that is deep within their culture. It’s great when the process is natural and doesn’t require a wiki page to describe it, but for most teams and organizations a common vocabulary and understanding of the what, when, and how’s is important because some people need to adapt to a new culture.

Now that I have experienced the benefits of having just-enough process to get hyper-productive my allergies to the word itself have ceased.


Crawlable AJAX for SPEED with Rails

Recently at work we have been focusing our efforts on increasing overall performance of our site. Many of our pages have a lot of content on them, some might say too much. Thanks to Newrelic, we identified a couple of partials that were slow (consumed ~60% of the time) but could not just remove them from our page and the long term fix was going to be put into place over the coming weeks. Long story short, we though that it would be better to speed up the initial page load time and then call the more expensive partials asynchronously using separate AJAX calls. That way the page time would be faster and the slow parts would be split up between requests.

The Problem: Google’s Crawler doesn’t like AJAX (normally)

Googlebot still does not load javascript and perform AJAX calls. Because of this we don’t get credit from google for the content that we loaded on AJAX—which is a bummer and a show stopper for us. Duplicate content is bad forSEO and Google will come to our pages and see that they are similar, even though the user sees the relevant content as the page loads, it will “think” that our pages are mostly the same (header and footer, etc.)

The Solution: Google allows for Crawlable AJAX

On their site, Google suggests that sites that have AJAX on them use a particular approach to making them crawlable. I won’t go into the details of how google supports this because its all stated in their paper, but I did want to focus on how I implemented the solution.

Before I continue I want to say that I was hesitant to do this because at first glance I didn’t think it was be easy or effective, I was wrong and I apologize to my friend Chris Sloan for doubting him in the beginning as he proposed the idea. (he made me include this in the post and threatened my life if I didn’t)

Google basically wants to be able to see the ajaxified page as a whole static page, so they pass an argument to the page and in turn we are supposed to render the whole page without the need to call AJAX to fill portions of the page with content.

I wanted to funnel the AJAX calls for different partials though a single action within our site so I didn’t have to build out custom routes and custom actions for each partial, which would be extremely messy to maintain.

The Code

So here is a simple example of the approach we took:

Created a single action that tooked for specific classes and then made requests to the server passing a couple of key parameters: /ajaxified?component=&url=<%= request.request_uri %>

    module AJAXified # include this in a controller (or the app controller)

      # HOWTO
      # To add a new AJAX section, do the following:
      # 1) Write a test in crawlable_spec for the new container and url
      # 2) Add the new method/container to the the ALLOWED_CALLS array      
      # 3) Add the new method below so it sets required instance variables


      def is_crawler?

      # Actual Instance Setting Methods Are BELOW This Line

      # Note: each method needs to return the partial/template to render

      def bunch_o_things(options=nil)
        @thing ||= Thing.find(options[:params][:id])

        @things_for_view = @thing.expensive_call

      # Actual Instance Setting Methods Are ABOVE This Line

      public # below is the actual main ajax action

      def ajaxified
        raise "method \"#{params[:container]}\"is not allowed for AJAX crawlable" unless ALLOWED_CALLS.include? params[:container].to_sym

        raw_route = ActionController::Routing::Routes.recognize_path(params[:url],:method=>:get)
        request.params[:crawlable_controller] = raw_route[:controller]
        request.params[:crawlable_action]     = raw_route[:action]

        render :template => self.send(
          params[:container].to_sym, :params => request.params
        ), :layout => false


I needed to ensure that the method :is_crawler? is available within views as controller.is_crawler?

  hide_action :is_crawler?

In the controller action where the code would have normally been executed, we need to add a check for crawler so we don’t execute code that is not needed.

def show
    @thing = Thing.find(params[:id])

    if is_crawler?
      # sets @things_for_view

In the view:

<article id="things" data-crawlable="<%= controller.is_crawler? ? 'false' : 'true' %>">
  <% if controller.is_crawler? or request.xhr? %>
    <% @things_for_view.each do |thing| %>
      ... potentially expensive stuff ...
    <% end %>
  <% end %>

Because I had to water the code down a bit to show how it works ingeneral, this code is not tested nor has it been executed as is. I actually had to add more stuff around the project I did for work in order for it it work as we needed it to.

The general idea here is to centralize the partial render, reduce duplication within the controller and ensure that the code that slowed the partial down to begin with is not executed when the page is not being crawled.

In the end, we were able to reduce the initial request by ou users by 60% and google is able to crawl our site as it always had.


Saving time with Threads the Ruby way

I have been working on some projects that require me to do multiple serial webservice calls using soap and http clients. As you might guess without concurrency its such a waste waiting for the network IO and its ends up being accumulative in times—the more service calls the slower it gets (.5s+1s+2s+1s+1s = 5.5seconds). Originally I wasn’t worried because I knew I would come back and tweak the performance by using threads and so today was the day for me to get it going. Before I got too crazy coding i wanted to run some basic benchmarks just to see if it would really end up making things faster. Here is what I did: { |rep|"non-threading") { 
    1.upto(100) { |count|
      amount_rest = rand(4)
      # puts "##{count}: sleeping for #{amount_rest}" 
      # puts "##{count}: woke up from a #{amount_rest} second sleep" 
  }"threading") { 
    threads = []
    1.upto(100) { |c|
      threads << { |count| 
        amount_rest = rand(4)
        # puts "##{count}: sleeping for #{amount_rest}" 
        # puts "##{count}: woke up from a #{amount_rest} second sleep" 
    while !( == 1 and == false)
     # puts "will check back soon" 

benchmark        user     system      total        real
non-threading  0.100000   0.290000   0.390000 (142.005792)
threading          0.010000   0.020000   0.030000 (  3.182716)

As you can see, the threading in Ruby works really well as long as each thread is not doing anything CPU intensive. Even though ruby 1.8.7 does not support native threads, the threading, as you can see above, does work well. When all was said and done, I ended up making more than a 100% improvement and it will work a bit better if and when we have to do more requests concurrently.

I do however look forward to using ruby 1.9, but this will do the trick for me now.

Setting the ACLs to public-read on Millions of S3 Objects

I learned a valuable lesson today. When you use Amazon’s Import/Export service be sure that your manifest file includes proper ACL meta-data. I left it to the defaults and my more than 600G of files (yes, all 23 million of them) were not readable on CloudFront for use on my site because they were not public. I tried to use Amazon’s web-based console to change the ACLs, but it was quite discouraging when it only updated about 100 a minute. I tried “Bucket Explorer” and although it was a bit faster, my 30-day trial would have expired before it was finished. I knew I had to script something that could do it quicker so I did a bit of research and figured that if I usedEC2 it could be 100-1000 x faster because it was considered an internal call by S3.

So here are the steps that I took to hack a solution together and I hope that if you are in my same boat you might find this helpful.

Start and EC2 instance and ssh into it:

ssh -p 22 -i ~/Sites/mysite/myec2key.pem

Install Python’s easy_install utiltity (on Ubuntu it is like this):

sudo apt-get install python-setuptools

A helpful utility named s3tunnel doesn’t allow you to update objects ACL so we will only use it to build our object list. The reason why I am used s2tunnel is because it is very fast at getting the list of objects. In my tests is was over 2000 objects per second.

Install s3tunnel: easy_install s3funnel

On the instance I create a directory to store work in so I can keep things simple. (you don’t have to do this if you don’t want to)

mkdir -p ~/amazon-files/input
mkdir ~/amazon-files/output
cd ~/amazon-files

Then I run the s3tunnel dump (you will have to replace AWS_KEY andAWS_SECRET with your respective s3 key)

nohup s3funnel bucket_name --aws_key=AWS_KEY --aws_secret_key=AWS_SECRET list > s3files.txt &

Then once the object list was complete I split it up a bit into smaller files:

cd input
split -l 5000 --suffix-length=6 ../s3files.txt s3

For my 23 million files this created about 4600 files.

Then I wrote a bash script that moved the files into 10 different directories. I chose 10 because that is how many threads that I wanted to run at the same time.

for file in $(ls input/s3*)
  csum=`sum $file | cut -f1 -d' '`
  process = `expr $csum % 50`

  echo "Moving $file into input/$process" 
  if [[ ! -d input/$process ]]
    mkdir input/$process
    mkdir output/$process    
  mv $file input/$process

Then I wrote a simple python script named which I placed in the/amazon-files directory that used boto (a python library for s3—the same one that s3funnel uses under the hood.) This script looked like this:

#! /usr/bin/env python

import sys
import boto 
import re

print 'processing file: ' + sys.argv[1]

f = open('input/' + sys.argv[1], 'r')
c = boto.connect_s3("AWS_KEY", "AWS_SECRET")
b = c.get_bucket("bucket_name")
for line in f:
    b.set_acl('public-read', line.strip())


Now that I have all of my objects evenly distributed into 10 separate directories I can now loop through each directory and kick-off one bash process at a time and move the completed files into the completed (output) this way if something goes wrong, I can see progress and can just restart the scripts. And it will continue (pretty much) where it left off. (give or take ~4000 objects)

for directory in $(ls input);
  nohup bash -l -c "for file in \$(ls input/${directory}); do python input/${directory}/\${file} && mv input/${directory}/\${file} output/${directory}; done" &

I first started with 10 processes and then realized that 50 processes would have been better so I continued with 50. Running 50 processes on my 23 million objects would take about 12 hours to finish (532 objects updated a second.) All in all I was able to update all of the ACLs for the objects in what I now consider the fastest method possible.

This is obviously a hack and could use some cleanup and consolidation. Part of me wanted to just modify s3funnel to update all of the TCL’s but I am not that strong with Python and really just wanted to get my ACLs updated.

How about next time we use Import/Export we take a little longer to read about ACLs.

Real Travel Acquired by Uptake and The Back Story

Today is the day that it has become public knowledge that my company Real Travel has been acquired by Uptake Networks. It’s been over 5 years since I wrote the first line of PHP code for Real Travel. I wanted to share a bit about my ride so far and I look forward to even more excitement within Real Travel as part of the Uptake Network.

Real Travel’s Conception

Over 5 years ago I was introduced by to Ken Leeder by a mutual friend of ours. After a few breakfast meetings with a few of us (Michael T., Christina B., and Ken L.) we put together some wireframes and I went to work in the moonlight. Six months later we had a pilot/prototype that was built by me using PHP/MySQL with some help from a contract designer who gave me some photoshop designs. (Christina also helped with some of the design.) The application was quite simple then; we had lists of hotels in destinations and a review form for hotels.

A few more months later I quit my job [yes, the link no longer works.:)] and the company was incorporated, and our initial seed round of fundingwas coming together. This was also the time that we hired a new CTO and Chief Architect (who are no longer with us.) The decision was made to rewrite the pilot using the then beta ASP.NET 2. I pushed back but other were more familiar with Microsoft technologies and won the battle. Knowing now what was coming next, in retrospect I wish I had fought harder for an open source LAMP stack that couldn’t scale.

The Pain of Learning What You Already Knew (Again)

There was a “culture” clash in respect to development and design approaches. Within three months we went from my pilot’s 5-10K lines of PHPcode and uber simple database schema, you know the kind that you can mange from the command-line without a plethora of GUI tools, to over 100K lines of code of C# and a object oriented db schema in PostgreSQL (not the built in kind of object oriented that PostgreSQL provides, but a new home grown schema that was designed for fourth normal form.)

I will never forget the day when our architect showed the database schema relation map, it looked like a ball of yarn with so many relationship lines that the shapes of tables themselves were indistinguishable as rectangles. This was my first run in with doing it the “right” way the first time fallacy, at least to this extreme. As an engineer with then 5 years of experience I expressed my concern with the complexity but was quickly extinguished by the group-think cliches like “this is how the big guys do it.”

We started to release our site weekly and launched our site at the Web 2.0 Conference Launch Pad. The development was slow due to the complexity of the database. Not kidding, it took about 10 SQL inserts in order to add a single photo to the database; tables for strings, dates, root objects, photo, photo renditions, and so on.

During the year or two following…. a lot of “fun” happened”….. and our site’s architecture was extremely brittle and we spent a good part of our time debugging strange bugs, slow queries (with at least 5 if not 8 joins in them,) and strange IIS bugs. (A very educational experience for me building the ivory tower inefficiently.)

Born Again

I was playing with a new toy on the side called Ruby on Rails and became really enchanted in the framework and the Ruby language its self. I finally felt free from the 90 second compile time and memory cache load that ourASP.NET app required between code changes. It reminded me of thePHP/MySQL days and I realizes just how horribly over engineered our system was. I started to propose a rewrite but it went over like a lead balloon, but this did not deter me. I did freelance projects in Rails and PHPjust to keep my sanity. I believed in Real Travel and didn’t want to leave; I was drawn in by the opportunity to be the catalyst for positive change the second I was given a chance. The time would come.

As time went on and our releases became more distant apart, and our site became slower and slower, my challenge to rewrite the site became that much more appealing, but it was becoming a bigger task each day. Each time I had to change a line of code I had to wait (And wait) for hours to compile the app, start it and test it, then more hours and even days to release it, I would say “if this were Ruby on Rails it would have been done a while ago.” We knew as a company that something had to be done and as a team we were unable to develop new features and move our company forward.

As a company, we were forced by the market to change our midset, and accepted that something had to be done but a port to Rails was still out of the question. We attempted to de-normalize our tables and rewrite the code base in ASP.NET and C#, but that only proved to take even more time and we were still on ASP.NET.

A New Chapter With Ruby on Rails

It wasn’t easy, but I continued to champion the move to Ruby on Rails and we started to build all of our new development on it. We ended up having two applications, the main one was APS.NET the new one Ruby on Rails. With a use of a load balancer we were able to make much of this transparent and we found ourselves spending must of out time where it could count—on the Rails application. In fact there was a time where only one Windows development machine existed on a desk in case we had to make a change to the old system we could make the change, test it, and then push the code to production. After many many long discussions and debates we finally made the decision to make the port to Rails. It was also about this time that we decided that unless we started to use SCRUM we would either all quit or jump off of a bridge.

SCRUM, Agile, TDD/BDD, Quality, and Accountability

We had all learned our lesson. As a company we went to SCRUM training and this was one of the most pivotal points in my tener at Real Travel (or in my career.) We began to form good process and better working relationships. I begin to jump into rspec and getting the quality built in to the product it was a start, each day getting better and better.

About 11 two-week sprints later (579 story points) we had a new version ofReal Travel up and running on Ruby on Rails. I had the pleasure of powering down the last windows server—it was nice after all of the pain.

Nothing was stopping us: continuous improvement, open communication, retrospectives, developer productivity, and backlog directed self organized team. Within a year we ported the system and made major improvements to our site and even started to make some decent revenue. The summer of 2009 was great for us, major traffic gains, increased revenue, and then the Google problems started. Although I did the Rails development I could not have done it without Chris Sloan and Francisco Marin as team members, peers, and heros.

Google: The Authoritarian Mime

I won’t bore you with the details in this post, but due to some spammed pages in our site Google had decided to kick us out of their index and not tell us why. Fortunately after some time we found the problem (we found and deleted some pages that were link spammed with V1agra links and had 5K links pointing into them) and once it was fixed our traffic started to come back a bit.

Then months later we had another problem with a load balancer configuration which caused our old site’s links to become 404s. This was not obvious to us right away, but like the other Google problems, it was a problems for us and affected our traffic. We fixed the problem but we were cut deeply but the two complications. Our traffic started coming back along with our revenues, but it was slower and was a long rough ride. Traffic and revenues were going in the right direction however. We knew we could get our traffic back and get things going so we marched on.

Becoming “That” Team and Company

Through the couple of years we started to tune our SCRUM process and went from two-week sprints to one week sprints, one day planning meetings to 1 hour planning meetings, and one a week releases to releasing multiple times we day with continuous release. It started to become really exhilarating when we could run an on the street low-fi paper test with the kind people of Palo Alto, come up with some up hypothesis on a change, push out a split test (aka. AB test) and then release the winner in a day. If there was a bug and it affected our site, we could have the fix out in minutes.

What Now?

With traffic bouncing back we were engaged by Uptake and I will let Tech Crunch, and the many other blogs tell the rest of the story. I consider myself privileged to be able to learn with and from my fellow team members and ride the ebbs and flos from the first line of code that I wrote on that first pilot and I look forward to the future as Uptake and Real Travel aim to provide the best travel experiences on the web.

So, Sloan, pull the next test from the top of the test queue and lets test it!

Ubuntu and PostgreSQL upgrade from 8.3 to 8.4

I wanted to install postgis 1.4 and postgres 8.4 and had to upgrade ubuntu from 9.04 to 9.10, then to 10.04. After the long wait I realized that I had painted myself into a corner and my data in postgres version 8.3 was not usable with the new postgres 10.04. I could not uninstall 8.4 and reinstall 8.3 to dump the data. After searching I found the help that I needed and after following the steps below got my databases back up and running.

After adding the following two lines into my /etc/apt/sources.list:

deb karmic main restricted universe
deb-src karmic main restricted universe

I was able to install postgresql 8.3 once again.

apt-get update && apt-get install postgresql-8.3

Then while posotgres 8.3 was running again on my new system I was able to dump all my databases like so:

bash # psql -U postgres
postrgres # \l

Then I copied my dbs into a file called dbs.txt like so:


Then I simply dumped all of the databases:

bash # mkdir databases ; cd databases
bash # for db in $(cat dbs.txt); do pg_dump -U postgres $db > ${db}.sql; done

Then I uninstall postgres 8.3:

bash # sudo apt-get remove postgresql-8.3
bash # sudo apt-get remove postgresql-client-8.3

I ran into some problems with postgres not fully uninstalling so I had some issues so I had to run the following to fully remove all versions of postgres. You may not experience these problems so if you do, you may need to fully

bash # sudo dpkg -r postgresql-8.3 && sudo dpkg -P postgresql-8.3
bash # sudo dpkg -r postgresql-8.4 && sudo dpkg -P postgresql-8.4

I then removed the two lines that I added to the /etc/apt/sources.list above. Then I updated the apt:

bash # sudo apt-get update

Then I reinstall postgres 8.4:

bash # sudo apt-get install postgresql-8.4

I then had to modify the /etc/postgresql/8.4/main/pg_hba.conf and for my needs. Note this is not a secure configuration and leaves postgres very open:

local   all         postgres                          trust
local   all         all                                     trust
host    all         all           trust 

Then I added my database user:


After removing some databases that I no longer need in addition to the postgres database as well as the default templates, I imported the dumps into the new database.

Now, the moment that we all have been waiting for:

for db in $(cat dbs.txt); do echo ${db}; createdb -U myuser ${db}; psql -U myuser ${db} < ${db}.sql; done

With any luck we now have a system that works.